Then where Alexander the Great was buried

 

 Then where Alexander the Great was buried



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It was being passionately debated at a place where Iraq is today, 300 years before the birth of Jesus Christ. Three close associate generals of Alexander were standing at the head-side of his body. One of them said Alexander had wished he should be buried beside the largest Pyramid of Pharaoh in Egypt. But it could not happen.

 


 Then where Alexander the Great was buried?

 


It was any place in Alexandria, Egypt, that no one knows to-date. But the person appointed governor of Egypt by Alexander and supported his burial with the Pharaohs... became new Pharaoh or ruler of Egypt. 



He was Ptolemy Soter whose dynasty ruled Egypt for the next 300 years. Both efficient and inefficient persons from this dynasty came to power, but one of them won lasting fame. And the irony of fate is, the rule of this dynasty came to an end with his rule. It was Cleopatra, the Seventh. 



Many true and false tales are ascribed to Cleopatra. You must also have heard them. We look into them one by one to determine whether they were true or the propaganda of the conquerors...

 

that they had been historically doing.

 

 

 

Whether Cleopatra was her actual name?

 

First of all, her name was not Cleopatra.Like a male ruler in Egypt was called Pharaoh, Caesar in Rome and Czar in Russia, the female ruler....in Egypt at that time was called Cleopatra. 


The real name of this queen globally famed in history by the name of Cleopatra was Cleopatra, VII, Philopater. She was born in the Ptolmey dynasty around 69 years before Jesus Christ.

 

Whether Cleopatra was an Egyptian or the Roman?

 

The forefathers of Cleopatra had come from Greece to Egypt for rule centuries ago. But her dynasty got permanently settled in Egypt for 300 years. Therefore in historic perspective, you may call Cleopatra family not Egyptian. Can you justify the title ''migrant'' against the name of a dynasty that was settled in Egypt over 300 years?

 No.

 

So Cleopatra was also an Egyptian with Greek genes and the first of her family who learnt the Egyptian language.

 

Whether she was an illegitimate child?

 

It is quite correct within the meaning of the present era. The old Egypt had a tradition of marrying brother and sister to keep the lineage pure. Like other royal dynasties, the Ptolemaic dynasty had been pursuing the same tradition over the centuries. The same opinion had been held about the parents of Cleopatra by the historians. That they too, perhaps, were real brother and sister.

 

Same way Cleopatra married her two brothers in turn. She also had children from that wedlocks. She became Queen Cleopatra at 18 when her brother was 13. She was enthroned in adolescence after the death of her parents. Don't forget that the male rulers of the Ptolemy dynasty were also called Pharoah.

 

Whether Cleopatra was as beautiful as narrated in history?

 

The history had endorsed the fact that Cleopatra was not that beautiful. A glimpse of it is available on the coins that bear her image. The image clearly showed her pointed nose and masculine features. However, some historians admit Cleopatra's beauty who had intentionally got her masculine image on the coins...to assert her prowess. 


She may be as beautiful in reality as she is famed for. After all Greek blood ran in her veins. Some historians described her voice and the gestures the most attractive features of her personality. he mesmerized others with them. 

She also commanded the art to impress others. When the Roman ruler Julius Caesar reached Egypt, Cleopatra was at civil-war with her brother. Cleopatra wanted to see Ceasar but she feared her brother would impede her way. Therefore she played a trick. 


She wrapped herself up in a  carpet. Her servants carried this carpet to Ceasar. Nobody took notice of this carpet on the way. The servants unfolded the carpet in the camp .of Ceasar. He became dumfound to see the Egyptian queen before him. Similarly, Cleopatra sailed in a boat of gold to see General Antony for the first time. The ores of the boat were made of silver. Cleopatra had also fashioned herself to a goddess. And the servants wearing angel-like dresses were fanning her. 


The scene made Antonius (Antony) an ardent lover of Cleopatra. Whether Cleopatra was an able ruler or she was merely a beautiful lady. It is also a fact that Nature had not only blessed her with beauty but also ruling abilities. She knew seven languages besides acquiring education in maths, philosophy, and astronomy. 


She used to study in the grand libraries of Egypt and her 22-year rule went as the best. She waived taxes during the feminine and provided grains to the people free of cost. She was so intelligent and powerful ruler that different factions of the Roman called for her help.

 

 Whether or not Cleopatra was also the murderer of her brothers and a sister?

 

It is an old royal tradition that a king kills the rivals to save the state from civil war or add to his power. Cleopatra also followed the same tradition. As per family tradition, Cleopatra married her brother to share power with him. But she wanted to become the sole ruler. 


So she declared war against her brother. She also unexpectedly got the help of Roman Emperor Ceasar. Pompey, the rival of Ceasar, came to Egypt for refuge after suffering a defeat. The brother of Cleopatra gave him the asylum. But later, Pompey was killed in Egypt. It goes that the brother of Cleopatra had got him killed. The history also tells us that he was assassinated by his own associates. 


Julius Ceasar instead of exalting over the death of his friend got annoyed with the ruling brother of Cleopatra. It provided an excellent opportunity to Cleopatra and she joined hand with Julius Ceasar. And with Ceasar's help she eliminated her rivals in Egypt. Cleopatra's brother was drowned to death in the River Nile. Now Cleopatra married her younger brother and later also got him killed. Same way, she also got her younger sister killed. Did the murder of Julius Ceasar relate to Cleopatra anyway? Julius Ceasar, the last ruler of the Roman Republic was closely related to Cleopatra.


 Ceasar had played a key role in getting the rule to Cleopatra in Egypt. Cleopatra and Julius Ceasar did not marry yet they lived together. The Roman Nobles were quite upset over their relations. This elite class believed Ceasar was dancing to the tune of Cleopatra. Cleopatra also had a son from relations with Ceasar.

 

Who earned the fame by the name of Ceasurian. The Roman Elite believed that when children of Cleopatra and Ceasar would grow up... Cleopatra would be fully controlling the rule. The Roman Nobles did not like a woman in the rule. Therefore, they wanted to kill Cleopatra. In 44BC, the Roman Senators murdered Julius Ceasar. The historians believed the aim to get rid of Cleopatra, was one of the reasons for the killing of Ceasar. But the Senators also had many  other reasons to kill Ceasar. 


Cleopatra was a fashion icon in Rome and Egypt. After the murder of Ceasar, Cleopatra's stay in Rome was not without threats. She apprehended her and the murder of her son Caesarian. So she came back to Egypt for safety. Cleopatra remained awe-inspiring for the Roman women as long as she stayed in Rome. 


The awe even lingered on in Rome on after she had left. The same Elite women who hated Cleopatra adopted her hairstyle, dresses, and jewellery as fashion. Rome also had an era when every women fashion began with Cleopatra. Cleopatra had left Rome but the Roman women continued to fashion themselves after her. The Roman women were so impressed by Cleopatra that many ladies were statued in the semblance of Cleopatra. 


Did Cleopatra and Mark Antony roam about the roads? 

Many factions were created in Rome after the murder of Ceasar. Ceasar's close friend, Mark Antony led one of the factions. This group wanted to get control over Rome. But Antony too fell in love with Cleopatra. And Cleaptra too, began to love him. Both married. And they had three children. 

Their emotions of love after the marriage remained the same as they were before. Antony and Cleopatra had a great liking for alcohol and loitering. Associating their friends they had secretly set up a circle. Here they used to hobnob. Antony and Cleopatra mostly hanged around at night outside the palace. They used to mix up with the common people and enjoyed time. 


Whether or not Cleopatra was also a naval commander? 

Yes, she was not only beautiful, brainy and brave but also an admiral. The marriage of Cleopatra and Antony gave an alarm to the opponents of Antony in Rome. Because their unity had become a power. But the rivals of Antony launched propaganda in Rome against this unity. 


They maligned Antony as a traitor. That he aimed at establishing the dictatorship in Rome in collusion with Cleopatra. So forces of both the groups encountered at Actium near Greece, on 2 September 31-BC. Cleopatra too commanding a naval ship entered the war in support of Antony. 


But they faced a crushing defeat in this battle. So they were to return to the coastal city of Egypt, Alexandria. But the rival army of General Octavian following them entered Alexandria. They wanted to arrest Mark Antony. But he preferred death over surrendering. He committed suicide.Whether Cleopatra had died of snake biting? The history is by and large agreed to it.That Cleopatra and Mark Antony had committed suicide. However, the difference is over the mode of death.


 A story goes that after suffering defeat at Actium battlefield at the hand of Octavian, Cleopatra... took shelter at a secret place in Egypt. In that course, she also attempted to develop relations General Octavian or strike any deal. 


But she failed. It also goes that she herself communicated to Mark Antony that Cleopatra had committed suicide...out of frustration over his defeat. Deeply involved in Cleopatra's love General Antony took the rumor as true and stabbed his sword... in his chest and took his life. But Cleopatra felt guilty about learning that and got herself bitten by a snake. 


And committed suicide. Looking deeply into it, we cannot expect from such a mature, sensible lady of the ruling mind... that she committed suicide out of emotions. Therefore the historic perception sounds more correct that she had seen through...her end after the defeat.


 She was certain about getting an exemplary harsh treatment by the Roman army for supporting Antony. So she swallowed the poison as the rulers or the army generals used to do at that time. Cleopatra used to conceal poison in her comb for consuming it on such occasion. But the fact, there was another thing more interesting. 

Whatever we know about her, is correct or incorrect? 

Whatever we know about Cleopatra was written years after her death. And that too, by her rivals. Because Cleopatra was a powerful Egyptian queen. It was a time of civil war in the Roman Republic across the sea. Different factions were in a tug-of-war for power. 

These factions also wanted the help of the powerful woman, like Cleopatra. But you know,  the last alliance of Cleopatra and the Roman General Antony had been defeated. After which both had committed suicide. The Greek faction of General Octavian, which had defeated Cleopatra, was the same that used to...do propaganda to promote hatred of the woman rule. 


Therefore when the history was written in the Roman Court later, Cleopatra was shown the same... whatever the victorious against her wanted. They painted Cleopatra alliances with other powers as her sex stories that may be correct...or it may be false. 


But there was no two-opinion about the fact whatever was written on Cleopatra was done...by her rivals in the first place. Whether the world costliest movie was produced on Cleopatra? The story of the Queen of Nile, Cleopatra has been shown in movies, dramas, and plays thousands of times. 



But the most popular of them all was the movie "Cleopatra," produced in 1963. Elizabeth Tylor had performed Cleopatra in that movie. The budget of this movie started from $2milion had reached $45million. Calculating it on the current basis, the budget would stand at $320million. So huge was the budget that it brought the production house, 20th Century Fox near bankruptcy.




 On the costumes of the Cloapatra had cost over $2million. It was the costliest movie when it was released. Saadat Hasan Manto also wrote a memorable drama on Cleopatra. But it was only a romantic depiction of a scene of the last moments of Cleopatra and Mark Antony.




 Cleopatra was the Egyptian queen 2000 years ago. You saw her story. But remember the more the history is old, the more it becomes the hearsay. But the more the history is late, the more it nears the facts. This history also becomes easy to examine. 

 

  

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